I start the lesson with the video in the resource section. I want to set the tone that we are going to have some fun with graphing today. As you will see from the video, one student (at the end of the clip) says, "This is so much aswesomer."
Advanced Preparation: I created the template for this graph before class started. I have included both pdf and notebook file formats. If you have the notebook software you can just change the information to the question you want to ask.
"We are going to create a representation called a bar graph. The question I am asking is Would you rather be a student or a teacher? As you give you me your response, I will fill in one space for your answer."
Record student responses and then have a discussion about the representation and results of the survey.
"What can you easily tell from looking at this representations? What is hard to tell from looking at this representations?
When asking kids this, you will hear things like, "How many people answered student or How many people answered teacher?" The reason being that seeing a bar graph with numbers on the vertical axis may be new to them and students may not realize that they can look at these numbers to see the amount in each category. You want to point out the features of the graph and who they can help us read the data. This way you are eliminating things that might students see as difficulties.
What does this survey tell us about our class? How many people would rather be a teacher? How many people would rather be a student? What would more people rather be?
How many people answered this survey? What is an equation that we could write for this survey?
Why do you think more people would rather be a teacher?"
I have included a video clip of part of the discussion that the class had about this representation.
This whole lesson focuses on students creating a variety of representations and interpreting the data. The CCSS expect that 1st graders can organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another (CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.C.4).
During this section of the lesson, I have the students gather back in a circle on the carpet.
"We are now going to make a physical graph. A physical graph is another way of representing data. You will look at your shoes and find people who have the same color shoes as you. I want you to decide what the main color of your shoe is (for those who have multi colored shoes) and then group up with other people who have the same color. Once you have your group, stand in a spot not he carpet." There is a video in the section resource that includes this conversation.
Once they have their groups I ask them to make straight lines and then have each group line up next to each other. We then have a discussion about this representation.
What are the categories for this graph?
How many shoes are in each color?
Which category has the most?
Which category has the least?
How many people answered the survey? How could we figure it out?
What is an equation that we could write for this representation?
There is a video that shows part of this discussion.
It is expected that mathematically proficient students use quantitative reasoning that entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects (CCSS.Math.Practice.MP2 ).
I end the graph party with a tally chart/graph. I write the question, Did you have hot or cold lunch today?
'We are going to finish up with one last representation. The question is; Did you have hot or cold lunch today? I want you to use a tally mark to record your answer. Who can remind us what happens when we get to the 5th tally mark?"
I then call up each kid and make sure that each response is recorded. I then lead a discussion using the following questions?
What does this survey tell us?
Why is it easy to see how many people responded in each category?
How many people chose hot?
How many people chose cold?
How many people answered the survey?
What is a equation that can show the results of this survey?
There is a video clip of this discussion in the resource section and a photo of the final representation.
It is expected that students are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams and graphs. We also want them to be able to analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. In lessons like this one dealing with representing data, I want to provide my students with opportunities to routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose (CCSS.Math.Practice.MP4).
I end today's lesson with True or False Equations. You will need to make enough copies for your class. There are two different sheets. The adapted sheet is for those students who are still developing an understanding of the = sign and don't need the challenge of the 3 addends.
The Core expects first graders to understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2 (CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.D.7).
I want to look at how each student is developing with their ability to answer the equality statements. While students were working, I sat with one child who I have given a lot of intervention to this year. She needed a lot of guidance with this activity and I gave her most of my attention. By looking at their work, I can see who would benefit from explicit instruction with this concept. There is an example, of a child's work, that could use more interaction with this.
I also have taught them to use (if needed) a strategy where they cross out the addends as the combined them and the write the total above the numbers. You can see one child is using this strategy and one child didn't need it. Both of their sheets are in the section resource.